Since our inception in 2009, our team has been involved in a number of scientific research projects which have revealed new insights into our oceans and their inhabitants. Our research findings have been published in a number of internationally recognized peer-reviewed scientific journals and are used to inform policy aimed to protect marine species and their habitats.

Peer Reviewed Publications:


 Staaterman, E. 2016.  Passive acoustic monitoring in benthic marine crustaceans: A new research frontier. In: Au, W. L, and Lammers, M. O. (Eds). Listening in the Ocean. Springer, New York. 416p.

Gallagher A. J., Staaterman E. R., Cooke S. J., Hammerschlag N. 2016. Behavioral responses to fisheries capture among various shark species reveal mechanisms of species-specific sensitivity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. doi:10.1139/cjfas-2016-0165

Gallagher AJ, Brandl SJ, Stier AC (In Press) Intraspecific variation in body size does not alter the effects of a mesopredator. Royal Society Open Science 00:000-000.

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Danylchuk AJ, Cooke SJ (In Press) Shark recreational fisheries: status, challenges, and research needs. Ambio 00:000-000.

Gallagher AJ, Lawrence MJ, Jain-Schlaepfer S, Wilson ADM, Cooke SJ. (In Press) Predators transmit fear in three-dimensions and influence parental care of prey. Canadian Journal of Zoology00:000-000.

Gallagher AJ, Creel S, Wilson RJ, Cooke SJ. (In Press) Energy landscapes and the landscape of fear. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 00:000-000.

Gallagher AJ. 2016. Coexistence with sharks: a response to Carter and Linnell. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 31:817-818.

Hammerschlag N, Skubel RA, Calich H, Cain S, Enchelmaier A, Jennings L, Macdonald CC, Nelson ER, Shiffman DS, Wester J, Gallagher AJ. (In Press) Nocturnal and crepuscular behavior in elasmobranchs: a review of movement, habitat use, foraging, and reproduction in the dark. Bulletin of Marine Science 00:000-000.

Hammerschlag N, Bell I, Fitzpatrick R, Gallagher AJ, Hawkes LA, Meekan MG, Stevens JD, Thums MD, Witt MJ, Barnett A. 2016. Behavioral evidence suggests facultative scavenging by a marine apex predator during a food pulse. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 70:1777-1788.

Birnie-Gauvin K, Peiman KS, Gallagher AJ, de Bruijn R, Cooke SJ.  (In Press).  Sublethal consequences of urban life for wild vertebrates.  Environmental Reviews DOI 10.1139/er-2016-0029

Roemer RP, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N. 2016. Extreme in-shore habitat utilization by a large apex predatory fish, the great hammerhead shark. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 49: 235-249.

Ward TD, Algera DA, Gallagher AJ,  Hawkins E, Horodysky A, Jorgensen C, Killen SS, McKenzie DJ, Metcalfe JD, Peck MA, Vu M, Cooke SJ. 2016. Understanding the Individual to Implement the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management. Conservation Physiology 4: cow005

Sulikowski J, Wheeler C, Gallagher AJ, Prohaska B, Hammerschlag N. 2016. Steroid hormones reveal individual differences in the reproductive biology of an apex marine predator. Aquatic Biology 24:175-184.

Cooke SJ, Nguyen VM, Wilson ADM, Donaldson MR, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N,  Haddaway NR. 2016. The need for speed in a crisis discipline: perspectives on peer review duration and implications for conservation science.  Endangered Species Research 30:11-18.


 Gallagher, A. J., Staaterman, E., and Dreyer, N. 2015. Kelp gulls prey on the eyes of juvenile Cape fur seals in Namibia. African Journal of Marine Science, 37:3.

Gallagher AJ, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. 2015. Risk perceptions and conservation ethic among Florida recreational anglers targeting threatened sharks. Endangered Species Research 29:81-93.

Nguyen VM, Haddaway NR, Gutowsky LFG, Wilson ADM, Gallagher AJ, et al. 2015. How Long Is Too Long in Contemporary Peer Review? Perspectives from Authors Publishing in Conservation Biology Journals. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0132557

Gallagher AJ, Vianna GMS, Papastamatiou YP, Macdonald C, Guttridge T, Hammerschlag N. 2015. Biological effects, conservation potential, and research priorities of shark diving tourism. Biological Conservation 184: 365-379.

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Cooke SJ, Costa DP, Irschick DJ. 2015. Evolutionary theory as a tool for predicting risk of extinction. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30: 61-65. (with cover)

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Cooke SJ, Costa DP, Irschick DJ. 2015. One size doesn’t always fit all: A response to Stroud and Feeley. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 33: 1-2.

Shiffman DS, Gallagher AJ, Wester J, Macdonald C, Thaler AD, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. 2015. A letter of clarification from the authors of “trophy fishing for species threatened with extinction” Marine Policy 53: 213-214.


 Staaterman, E., Paris, C. B., and Kough, A. S. 2014. First evidence of fish larvae producing sounds. Biology Letters, 10: 20140643.

Staaterman, E., Paris, C. B., DeFerrari, H. A., Mann, D. A., Rice, A. N., and D’Alessandro, E. K. 2014. Celestial Patterns in Marine Soundscapes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 508:17-32.

Staaterman ER, Bhandiwad AA, Gravinese PM, Moeller PM, Reichenbach ZC, Shantz AA, Shiffman DS, Toth LT, Warneke AM, Gallagher AJ. 2014. Lights, camera, science: The utility and growing popularity of film festivals at scientific meetings. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution. 7:11-16.

Kough, A. S., Paris, C. B. and Staaterman, E. 2014. The in situ swimming and orientation behavior of spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) postlarvae. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 504:207-219.

Staaterman, E., and Paris, C. B. 2014. Modeling larval fish navigation: The way forward. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71(4): 918-924.

Shiffman DS, Gallagher AJ, Wester J, Macdonald C, Thaler AD, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. 2014. Trophy fishing for species threatened with extinction: a way forward building on a history of conservation. Marine Policy 50: 318-322.

Gallagher AJ, Orbesen ES, Hammerschlag N, Serafy JE. 2014. Vulnerability of oceanic sharks to pelagic longline bycatch. Global Ecology and Conservation 1: 50-59.

Hammerschlag N, Cooke SJ, Gallagher AJ, Godley BJ. 2014. Considering the fate of electronic tags: user responsibility and interactions when encountering tagged marine animals. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 5: 1147–1153 (with cover)

Gallagher AJ, Wagner DN, Irschick DJ, Hammerschlag N. 2014. Body condition predicts energy stores in apex predatory sharks. Conservation Physiology 2: cou022

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Shiffman DS, Giery ST. 2014. Evolved for extinction? The price of specialization in apex marine predators. BioScience 67: 619-624. (with cover)

Gallagher AJ, Romeiro J, Canabal D, Canabal V, Hammerschlag N (2014) Social behaviors in open ocean sharks at a Bahamian reef. Ethology, Ecology, and Evolution 26: 413-417.

Cooke SJ, Hogan ZS, Butcher PA, Stokesbury MJW, Raghavan R, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Danylchuk AJ. 2014. Angling for endangered fish: conservation problem or conservation action? Fish and Fisheries

Gallagher AJ, Serafy JE, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. 2014. Physiological stress response, reflex impairment, and survival of five sympatric shark species following experimental capture and release. Marine Ecology Progress Series 496: 207-218.


 Staaterman, E., Rice, A. N., Mann, D. A., and Paris, C. B. 2013. Soundscapes from a Tropical Eastern Pacific reef and a Caribbean Sea reef. Coral Reefs. 32:553-557.

Fallows C, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N. 2013. White sharks (Carcharodon carcharhias) scavenging on whales and its potential role in further shaping the ecology of an apex predator. PLoS ONE 8: e60797.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Carlson JK. 2013. A revised estimate of daily ration in the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) with implications for assessing ecosystem impacts of apex predators. Functional Ecology 27: 1273-1274.

Carr LA, Stier AC, Fietz K, Montero I, Gallagher AJ, Bruno JF. 2013. Illegal shark fishing in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Marine Policy 39:317-321.


Staaterman, E., Paris, C. B., Helgers, J. 2012. Orientation behavior in fish larvae: a missing piece to Hjort’s critical period hypothesis. J. Theoretical Biology. 304:188-196.

Staaterman, E., Clark, C. W., Gallagher, A., Claverie, T., deVries, M., and Patek, S. N. 2012. The acoustic ecology of the California mantis shrimp. In: Popper, A. N. and Hawkins, A. eds. Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Wester J, Luo J, Ault JS. 2012. Don’t bite the hand that feeds: behavioral impacts of provisioning ecotourism on an apex marine predator. Functional Ecology26:567-576. (with cover)

Gallagher AJ, Kyne PK, Hammerschlag N. 2012. Ecological risk assessment and its application to elasmobranch conservation and management. Journal of Fish Biology 80:1727-1748.

Shiffman DS, Gallagher AJ, Boyle MD, Hammerschlag-Peyer CM, Hammerschlag N. 2012. Stable Isotope Analysis as a Tool for Elasmobranch Conservation Research: A Primer for Non-Specialists. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:635-643 (with cover)


Staaterman, E., Clark, C. W., Gallagher, A., Claverie, T., deVries, M., and Patek, S. N. 2011. Rumbling in the benthos: acoustic ecology of the California mantis shrimp (Hemisquilla californiensis). Aquatic Biology 13: 97-105 (Featured article, cover story).

Gallagher AJ, Jackson T, Hammerschlag N. 2011. Occurrence of tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) scavenging on avian prey and its possible connection to several large-scale bird die-offs in the Florida Keys. Florida Scientist 74:264-269.

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N. 2011. Global Shark Currency: The distribution and frequency, and socio-economics of shark ecotourism. Current Issues in Tourism 14:797-812.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Lazarre DM. 2011. A review of shark satellite tagging studies. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 398(1-2):1-8.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Lazarre DM, Slonim C. 2011. Range extension of the endangered great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran) in the Northwest Atlantic: Preliminary data and significance for conservation. Endangered Species Research 13:111-116.


 Gallagher AJ, Frick LH, Bushnell P, Brill RW, Mandelman JW. 2010. Blood gas, oxygen saturation, pH, and lactate values in elasmobranch blood measured with a commercially available portable clinical analyzer and standard laboratory equipment. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health22:229-234.


Staaterman, E., Claverie, T., and Patek, S. N. 2009. Disentangling defense: the function of spiny lobster sounds. Behaviour. 147(2):235-258.

Patek, S. N., Shipp, L. E., and Staaterman, E. R. 2009. The acoustics and acoustic behavior of the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125(5):3434-3443.

Publications In Review:

Staaterman, E., Mann, D. A, DeFerrari, H. A., and Paris, C. B. In review. Propagation of acoustic pressure and particle acceleration near a coral reef. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.