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About It


Beneath The Waves conducts independent and collaborative research with scientists, institutions, and individuals, to produce and disseminate scientific outputs throughout the year. Access all of our online publications below, broken down by topic.

Threatened Species & Sharks

Ayres KA, Gallagher AJ and Higuera-Rivas JE (2024) Orca (Orcinus orca) and shark predator-prey interactions within Cabo Pulmo National Park in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Front. Mar. Sci. 11:1407379. Read more
Bortoluzzi, J. R., McNicholas, G. E., Jackson, A. L., Klöcker, C. A., Ferter, K., Junge, C., Bjelland, O., Barnett, A., Gallagher, A. J., Hammerschlag, N., Roche, W. K., & Payne, N. L. (2024). Transboundary movements of porbeagle sharks support need for continued cooperative research and management approaches. Fisheries Research275, 107007. Read more
Gallagher AJ, de Silva C, Delaney D, Harris SD, Phillips BT, Shipley ON, Sulikowski JA, Duarte CM and Giddens J (2024) Novel behavioral observations and body scarring for the bluntnose sixgill shark (Hexanchus griseus) offer clues to reproductive patterns and potential mating events. Front. Mar. Sci. 11:1305487. Read more
Gore M, Kohler J, Ormond R, Gallagher A, Fernandes T, Austin T and Pattengill-Semmens C (2024) Renewed occurrence of schooling scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) and of great hammerhead (S. mokarran) sharks in the Cayman Islands. Front. Mar. Sci. 11:1347285. Read more
Campbell BA, Shipley ON, Jones TR, Gallagher AJ and Sulikowski JA (2024) Observations of biennial reproduction in Caribbean reef sharks ‘Carcharhinus perezi’Front. Mar. Sci. 10:1160199. Read more
Dixon OFL, Gallagher AJ and Towner AV (2023) Novel aerial observations of a group of killer whales Orcinus orca in The Bahamas. Front. Mar. Sci. 10:1265064. Read more
Renshaw, S., Hammerschlag, N., Gallagher, A. J., Lubitz, N., & Sims, D. W. (2023). Global tracking of shark movements, behaviour and ecology: A review of the renaissance years of satellite tagging studies, 2010–2020. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology560, 151841. Read more
Shipley ON et al. 2023 Energetic connectivity of diverse elasmobranch populations– implications for ecological resilience. Proc. R. Soc. B 290: 20230262. Read more
Jenrette, Jeremy F., et al. “Detecting Mediterranean White Sharks with Environmental DNA.” Oceanography, vol. 36, no. 1, 2023, pp. 87–89. JSTOR. Read more
Parton, K.J., Doherty, P.D., Parrish, M. et al. Opportunistic camera surveys provide insight into discrete foraging behaviours in nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum). Environ Biol Fish 106, 19–30 (2023). Read more
Shipley, O. N., Fitzgerald, J., Horne, B., Crowe, S., & Gallagher, A. J. (2022). Observations of hypomelanosis in the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum. Journal of Fish Biology102(1), 287–289. Read more
McClain MA, Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Drymon JM, Grubbs RD, Guttridge TL, Smukall MJ, Frazier BS and Daly-Engel TS (2022) Age-Dependent Dispersal and Relatedness in Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier)Front. Mar. Sci. 9:900107. Read more
Andrzejaczek, S., Lucas, T. C., Goodman, M. C., Hussey, N. E., Armstrong, A. J., Carlisle, A., Coffey, D. M., Gleiss, A. C., Huveneers, C., Jacoby, D. M. P., Meekan, M. G., Mourier, J., Peel, L. R., Abrantes, K., Afonso, A. S., Ajemian, M. J., Anderson, B. N., Anderson, S. D., Araujo, G., . . . Curnick, D. J. (2022). Diving into the vertical dimension of elasmobranch movement ecology. Science Advances8(33). Read more
Jorgensen SJ, Micheli F, White TD, Van Houtan KS and others (2022) Emergent research and priorities for shark and ray conservation. Endang Species Res 47:171-203. Read more
Cooke, S. J., Bergman, J. N., Twardek, W. M., Piczak, M. L., Casselberry, G. A., Lutek, K., Dahlmo, L. S., Birnie‐Gauvin, K., Griffin, L. P., Brownscombe, J. W., Raby, G. D., Standen, E. M., Horodysky, A. Z., Johnsen, S., Danylchuk, A. J., Furey, N. B., Gallagher, A. J., Lédée, E. J., Midwood, J. D., . . . Lennox, R. J. (2022). The movement ecology of fishes. Journal of Fish Biology101(4), 756–779. Read more
Harding, L., Gallagher, AJ., Jackson, A., Bortoluzzi, J., Dolton, HR., Shea, BD., Harman, L., Edwards, D., Payne, N. Capture heats up sharks. Conservation Physiology, Volume 10, Issue 1, 2022. Read more
Shipley, O.N., Manlick, P.J., Newton, A.L. et al. Energetic consequences of resource use diversity in a marine carnivore. Oecologia (2022). Read more
Jacoby, D.M.P., Watanabe, Y.Y., Packard, T. et al. First descriptions of the seasonal habitat use and residency of scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) and Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis) at a coastal seamount off Japan. Animal Biotelemetry 10, 22 (2022). Read more
Talwar, B.S., Bradley, D., Berry, C. et al. Estimated life-history traits and movements of the Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi) in The Bahamas based on tag-recapture data. Mar Biol 169, 55 (2022). Read more
Shea BD, Coulter SK, Dooling KE, Isihara HL, Ross JC, Sudal E, Donovan DJ, Hoopes LA, Dove ADM, Cooke SJ, Gallagher AJ. (2022) Recreational fishing fight times are not correlated with physiological status of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in the Northwestern Atlantic. Fisheries Research 248:106220. Read more
Gonzáles-Mantilla PG, Gallagher AJ, León CJ, Vianna G. (2022) Economic impact and conservation potential of shark-diving tourism in the Azores Islands. Marine Policy 135:104869. Read more
Bates AE, Primack RB, PAN-Environment Working Group (Gallagher AJ et al.), Duarte CM (2021) Global COVID-19 lockdown highlights humans as both threats and custodians of the environment. Biological Conservation 00:000-000.

Shea BD, Gallagher AJ (2021) Humpback whale instigates object play with a lion’s mane jellyfish. Oceans 00:000-000.

Meyer L, Barry C, Araujo G, Barnett A, Brunnschweiler JM, Chin A, Gallagher AJ, Healy T, Kock A, Newsome D, Ponzo A, Huveneers C. (2021) Redefining provisioning in marine wildlife tourism. Journal of Ecotourism 00:000-000.

Shipley ON, Lee CS, Fisher NS, Sternlicht JK, Kattan S, Staaterman ER, Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ (2021) Metal concentrations in coastal sharks from The Bahamas with a focus on the Caribbean Reef shark. Scientific Reports 11:218. Read More

McDonnell LH, Jackson T, Burgess GH, Phenix L, Gallagher AJ, Albertson H, Hammerschlag N, Browder J (2020). Saws and the city: smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) encounters, recovery potential and research priorities in urbanized coastal waters off Miami, Florida. Endangered Species Research 43:542-553. Read More

Moorhead, SG, Gallagher, AJ, Merly, L, Hammerschlag, N. (2020) Variation of body condition and plasma energy substrates with life stage, sex, and season in wild‐sampled nurse sharks Ginglymostoma cirratum. J Fish Biol. 2020; 1–14. Read More

Shea BD, Benson C, de Silva C, Donovan D, Romeiro J, Bond ME, Creel S, Gallagher AJ (2020) Effects of exposure to large sharks on the abundance and behavior of mobile prey fishes along a temperate coastal gradient. PLOS ONE 15(3): e0230308. Read More

Phenix LM, Tricarico D, Quintero E, Bond ME, Brandl SJ, Gallagher AJ (2020) Evaluating the effects of mobile predators on prey behavior across subtropical coastal marine habitats. Ecology and Evolution 9:13740-13751. Read More

Benson C, Shea B, de Silva C, Donovan D, Holder P, Cooke SJ, Gallagher AJ (2019) Physiological consequences of varying shark exposure on a large teleost species. Canadian Journal of Zoology 97:1195-1202. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Meyer L, Pethybridge H, Huveneers C, Butcher PA (2019) The effects of short-term capture on the physiology of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias): amino acids and fatty acids. Endangered Species Research 40:297-308. Read More

Gonzalez C, Gallagher AJ, Caballero S. (2019) Conservation genetics of the bonnethead shark Sphyrna tiburo in Bocas del Toro, Panama: preliminary evidence of a unique stock. PLoS ONE 14(8): e0220737. Read More

Shipley ON, Gallagher AJ, Shiffman DS, Hammerschlag N. (2019) Diverse resource-use strategies in a large-bodied marine predator guild: evidence from differential use of resource subsidies and intraspecific isotopic variation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 623:71-83. Read More

Hammerschlag N, Schimtz OJ, Flecker AS, Laffery K, Sih A, Atwood TB, Gallagher AJ, Irschick DJ, Skubel R, Cooke SJ. (2019) Ecosystem function and services of aquatic predators in the Anthropocene. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 34:369-383. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Klimley AP. (2018) The biology and conservation status of the large hammerhead shark complex: the great, scalloped, and smooth hammerheads. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 00:000-000. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Huveneers C. (2018). Emerging challenges in shark-diving tourism. Marine Policy 96:9-12. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Papastamatiou YP, Barnett A. (2018) Apex predatory sharks and crocodiles simultaneously scavenge a whale carcass. Journal of Ethology 00:000-000. Read More

Hammerschlag N, Skubel RA, Irschick DJ, Sulikowski J, Gallagher AJ (2018) A comparison of reproductive and energetic states in a marine apex predator (the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 00:000-000. Read More

Hammerschlag N, Gutowsky L, Gallagher AJ, Matich PL, Cooke SJ (2017) Diel activity patterns of a marine apex predator (tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier) in relation to dive tourism in a critical habitat. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 495: 24-34. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Skubel RA, Pethybridge HC, Hammerschlag N (2017) Energy metabolism in mobile, wild-sampled sharks inferred by plasma lipids. Conservation Physiology cox002. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Danylchuk AJ, Cooke SJ (2017) Shark recreational fisheries: status, challenges, and research needs. Ambio 46:385-398. (with cover). Read More

Marine Protected Areas

Shea, B. D., Gallagher, A. J., Bomgardner, L. K., & Ferretti, F. (2023). Quantifying longline bycatch mortality for pelagic sharks in western Pacific shark sanctuaries. Science Advances9(33). Read More
Gallagher AJ, Shipley ON, van Zinnicq Bergmann MPM, Brownscombe J, Dahlgren C, Frisk M, Griffin L, Hammerschlag N, Kattan S, Papastamatiou YP, Shea BD, Kessel S, Duarte C. (2021) Spatial connectivity and drivers of large shark habitat use within a large marine protected area in the Caribbean. Frontiers in Marine Science 7:1223. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Amon DJ, Bervoets T, Shipley ON, Hammerschlag N, Sims DW. (2020) The Caribbean needs big marine protected areas. Science 367:749. Read More

Queiroz N, Humphries NE, Couto A, Vedor M, da Costa I, Sequeira AMM, Mucientes G, Santos AM…Gallagher AJ…Harcourt R, Hays GC, Meekan MG, Thums M, Irigoien X, Eguiluz VM, Duarte CM, Sousa LL, Simpson SJ, Southall EJ, Sims DW. (2019) Global spatial risk assessment of sharks under the footprint of fisheries. Nature 572: 461–466. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Brandl SJ, Stier AC (2016) Intraspecific variation in body size does not alter the effects of a mesopredator. Royal Society Open Science 3:160414. Read More

Deep-sea Conservation & Biodiversity

Dixon, O.F.L., De Silva, C., Phillips, B.T. et al. Expanded vertical niche for two species of pelagic sharks: depth range extension for the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus and novel twilight zone occurrence by the silky shark Carcharhinus falciformisEnviron Biol Fish 107, 231–236 (2024). Read More

Aldridge, S.E.; Dixon, O.F.L.; de Silva, C.; Kohler, J.K.; Shipley, O.N.; Phillips, B.T.; Fernandes, T.F.; Austin, T.; Ormond, R.F.; Gore, M.A.; et al. Depth Range Extension for the Misty Grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus Documented via Deep-Sea Landers throughout the Greater Caribbean. Fishes 2024, 9, 114. Read More

Gallagher AJ, Shipley ON, De Silva C, Kohler JK, Fernandes TF, Austin T, Ormond RF and Gore MA (2023) First records of the blurred lantern shark Etmopterus bigelowi from the Cayman Islands, Western Atlantic. Front. Mar. Sci. 10:1165207. Read More

Braun, C. D., Della Penna, A., Arostegui, M. C., Afonso, P., Berumen, M. L., Block, B. A., Brown, C. A., Fontes, J., Furtado, M., Gallagher, A. J., Gaube, P., Golet, W. J., Kneebone, J., Macena, B. C. L., Mucientes, G., Orbesen, E. S., Queiroz, N., Shea, B. D., Schratwieser, J., . . . Thorrold, S. R. (2023). Linking vertical movements of large pelagic predators with distribution patterns of biomass in the open ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America120(47). Read More

Howell KL, Hilário A, Allcock AL, Bailey D, Baker M, Clark MR, Colaço A, Copley J, Cordes E, Danovaro R, Dissanayake A, Escobar E, Esquete P, Gallagher AJ, Gates AR, Gaudron SM, German CR, Gjerde K, Higgs ND, Le Bris N, Levin LA, Manea E, McClain C, Menot L, Mestre NC, Metaxas A, Milligan R, Muthumbi AWN, Narayanaswamy BE, Ramalho SP, Ramirez-Llodra E, Robson L, Rogers AD, Sellanes J, Sigwart J, Sink K, Snelgrove PVR, Stefanoudis PV, Sumida PY, Taylor ML, Thurber AR, Vieira R, Watanabe HK, Woodall LC, Xavier JR (2020) A decade to study deep-sea life. Nature Ecology & Evolution 00:000-000. Read More

Howell KL, Hilário A, Allcock AL, Bailey D, Baker M, Clark MR, Colaço A, Copley J, Cordes E, Danovaro R, Dissanayake A, Escobar E, Esquete P, Gallagher AJ, Gates AR, Gaudron SM, German CR, Gjerde K, Higgs ND, Le Bris N, Levin LA, Manea E, McClain C, Menot L, Mestre NC, Metaxas A, Milligan R, Muthumbi AWN, Narayanaswamy BE, Ramalho SP, Ramirez-Llodra E, Robson L, Rogers AD, Sellanes J, Sigwart J, Sink K, Snelgrove PVR, Stefanoudis PV, Sumida PY, Taylor ML, Thurber AR, Vieira R, Watanabe HK, Woodall LC, Xavier JR (2020) A blueprint for an inclusive, global deep-sea Ocean Decade field programme. Frontiers in Marine Science. 07-584861. Read More

Bakker J, Wangensteen O, Baillie C, Buddo D, Chapman D, Gallagher AJ, Guttridge T, Hertler H, Mariani S. (2019) Biodiversity assessment of tropical shelf eukaryotic communities via pelagic eDNA metabarcoding. Ecology and Evolution 9:14341–14355. Read More

Phillips BT, Shipley ON, Halvorsen J, Sternlicht JK, Gallagher AJ. (2019) First in situ observations of the sharpnose sevengill shark (Heptranchias perlo), from the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation 32:17-32. Read More

Ocean Policy & Global Conservation

Anders Ekelund, Andy Waddington, S. David Harris, Wells Howe, Carl Dersell, Erik Josefsson, Julian Olszewski, Torbjörn Tingåker, Eric Yang, Carlos M. Duarte, Austin J. Gallagher, High-resolution, precision mapping of seagrass blue carbon habitat using multi-spectral imaging and aerial LiDAR, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2024, 108832, ISSN 0272-7714. Read More

Poquérusse, J., Brown, C.L., Gaillard, C. et al. Assessing contemporary Arctic habitat availability for a woolly mammoth proxy. Sci Rep 14, 9804 (2024). Read More

Dixon OFL and Gallagher AJ (2023) Blue carbon ecosystems and shark behaviour: an overview of key relationships, network interactions, climate impacts, and future research needs. Front. Mar. Sci. 10:1202972. Read More

Fu, C., Frappi, S., Havlik, M.N. et al. Substantial blue carbon sequestration in the world’s largest seagrass meadow. Commun Earth Environ 4, 474 (2023. Read More

Etherington, B.S., Piczak, M.L., LaRochelle, L. et al. Effects of anthropogenic activities on scavenger communities in freshwater riparian zones of eastern Ontario, Canada. Aquat Ecol 57, 115–125 (2023). Read More

Steven J. CookeDiana M.P. GalassiBronwyn M. GillandersSean J. LandsmanNeil HammerschlagAustin J. GallagherErika J. EliasonClifford E. KraftMark K. TaylorCharlie M. CrisafulliDan H. Shugar, and Robert J. Lennox. 2023. Consequences of “natural” disasters on aquatic life and habitats. Environmental Reviews. 31(1): 122-140. Read More

Hammerschlag, N., Gutowsky, L., Rider, M., Roemer, R., & Gallagher, A. (2022). Urban sharks: residency patterns of marine top predators in relation to a coastal metropolis. Marine Ecology. Progress Series691, 1–17. Read More

Rangel, B. S., Moreira, R. G., Rider, M. J., Sulikowski, J. A., Gallagher, A. J., Heithaus, M. R., Cooke, S. J., Kaufman, L., & Hammerschlag, N. (2022b). Physiological state predicts space use of sharks at a tourism provisioning site. Animal Behaviour191, 149–163. Read More

Gallagher, AJ, Brownscombe, JW, Alsudairy, NA et al. Tiger sharks support the characterization of the world’s largest seagrass ecosystem. Nat Commun 13, 6328 (2022). Read More

Hammerschlag N, McDonnell LH, Rider MJ, Street GM, Hazen EL, Natanson LJ, McCandless CM, Boudreau MR, Gallagher AJ, Pinsky ML, Kirtman B. (2022) Ocean warming alters the distributional range, migratory timing, and spatial protections of an apex predator, the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) Global Change Biology 001– 16. Read More

Buxton RT, Nyboer EA, Pigeon KE, Raby GD, Rytwinski T, Gallagher AJ, Schuster R, Lin HY, Fahrig L, Bennett JR, Cooke SJ (2021) Avoiding wasted research resources in conservation science. Conservation Science and Practice 3: e329. Read More

Cooke SJ, Bergman J.N, Nyboer EA, Reid AJ, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Vermaire JC (2020) Overcoming the concrete conquest of aquatic ecosystems. Biological Conservation 247: 108589. Read More

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ (2017) Extinction risk and conservation of the Earth’s national symbols. BioScience 8:744-749. Read More

Lennox RJ, Gallagher AJ, Ritchie EG, Cooke SJ. (2018) Evaluating the efficacy of predator removal in a conflict-prone world. Biological Conservation 00:000-000. Read More